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Supplementary Material for: Association between Vitamin D and Risk of Stroke: A PRISMA-Compliant Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

posted on 29.07.2021, 12:43 by Su C., Jin B., Xia H., Zhao K.
Background: Previous studies have shown inconsistent results for associations between vitamin D and risk of stroke. We gathered the existing published articles and conducted this meta-analysis with the aim to explore the association between vitamin D and risk of stroke. Methods: We searched for articles exploring the association between vitamin D and risk of stroke and published before April 2021 in the following databases: PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All statistical analyses were made using STATA 12.0 software. Q test and I2 were applied to examine heterogeneities between studies. Results: For the association between serum levels of 25(OH) vitamin D and risks of stroke, the present analysis included 20 cohort studies (including 213,276 participants) and a case-control analysis (including 13,642 participants). Additionally, the analysis included 15 studies (including 41,146 participants given vitamin D supplementation and 41,163 participants given placebo) to evaluate the influence of vitamin D supplementation on risk of stroke. Higher circulating levels of 25(OH) vitamin D were associated with a reduced risk of stroke (odds ratio/relative risk = 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.70–0.86, I2 = 41.5%, p = 0.025). However, the present analysis showed that vitamin D supplementation did not influence the risk of stroke (hazard ratio = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.96–1.14, I2 = 2.3%, p = 0.425). Conclusions: Our analysis indicated that lower circulating level of vitamin D was associated with an elevated risk of stroke, but extra supplement of vitamin D failed to show benefit in decreasing the risk of stroke. Further research and study are also needed to show the role of vitamin D in relation to stroke.