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Supplementary Material for: Atrial and Ventricular Arrhythmia-Associated Factors in Stable Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

posted on 23.12.2015, 00:00 by Kusunoki Y., Nakamura T., Hattori K., Motegi T., Ishii T., Gemma A., Kida K.
Background: Supraventricular and ventricular premature complexes (SVPC and VPC, respectively) are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and with increased mortality in COPD patients. However, there are few reports on the causes of arrhythmia in COPD patients. Objectives: This study explores the associations between cardiopulmonary dysfunction and COPD by comparing patients with defined arrhythmias (>100 beats per 24 h) and those without, based on 24-hour electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings. Methods: Patients with arrhythmia underwent a 24-hour ECG and subsequent pulmonary function tests, computed tomography, ECG, 6-min walk test (6MWT), and BODE (body mass index, airflow obstruction, modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale, exercise capacity) index calculation. Results: Of 103 study patients (71 COPD patients and 32 at-risk patients), 36 had VPC, 45 had SVPC, 20 had both, and 42 had neither. The predicted post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s, the proportion of low-attenuation area on computed tomography, and BODE index values were significantly worse in the SVPC and VPC groups compared with the corresponding reference groups. Patients in the VPC group showed significantly increased right ventricular pressure and increased desaturation in the 6MWT compared with the reference group. In the multivariate analyses, bronchodilator use was a significant risk factor in the SVPC group, whereas in the VPC group, all parameters of the BODE index except for the dyspnoea score were identified as risk factors. Conclusions: Increased SVPC might be caused by bronchodilator use, whereas increased VPC is likely related to the peculiar pathophysiology of COPD.