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Supplementary Material for: Autoimmune Movement Disorders: A Video-Based Case Series of 11 Patients

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posted on 22.03.2021, 15:34 by Chouksey A., Pandey S.
Autoimmune encephalitis (AIE) constitutes an important treatable cause of movement disorders. We aimed to highlight the spectrum of movement disorder and other salient features of AIE patients diagnosed at our tertiary care centre and describe their clinical symptoms, diagnostic approach, treatment, and outcome. We evaluated 11 patients who presented with movement disorder in association with AIE at our centre. Various abnormal movements observed were tremor, dyskinesias, stereotypy, dystonia, ataxia, asterixis, myoclonus, and parkinsonism. Antibodies were detected against NMDAR (n = 3), LGI-1 (n = 2), GAD-65 (n = 1), CASPR-2 (n = 1), Sox-1 (n = 1), Yo (n = 1), and thyroid peroxidase (n = 1). One patient was diagnosed with opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome associated with the suspected neuroblastic tumour. Six patients responded well to first-line immunotherapy (intravenous immunoglobulins or steroid or both). Three patients with anti-NMDAR antibodies received second-line therapy consisting of rituximab. Movement disorder is one of the most consistent features of AIE. Understanding of the ever-expanding spectrum of antibodies associated with movement disorders helps in the early diagnosis and better management of patients of autoimmune movement disorder.

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