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Supplementary Material for: Autopsy Findings of Heterozygous Fabry Disease with the Severe Phenotype: A Case Report

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posted on 22.11.2021, 08:58 by Hiratsuka M., Koyama K., Ito M., Sato R., Suzuki K., Ito Y., Namba-Hamano T., Hamano T.
Fabry disease (FD) is an inherited X-linked lysosomal storage disorder, with hemizygous males being more severely affected than heterozygous females. Herein, we report a rare case of FD in a heterozygous female with a severe phenotype. The patient had obesity and hyperlipidemia and had her first cerebral infarction at the age of 33 years. She underwent renal biopsy and was diagnosed with FD with morphological features of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis nephropathy at the age of 34 years. Her leukocyte alpha-galactosidase A activity was 2.3 Agal/U (normal: >20 Agal/U), and genetic analysis revealed the presence of the classical phenotype. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) was initiated at the age of 35 years; however, peritoneal dialysis owing to end-stage renal failure occurred at the age of 37 years. The patient died of a cerebral hemorrhage at the age of 44 years. Her Mainz Severity Score Index at the time of death was 48/76, suggestive of the severe phenotype. Autopsy findings revealed remarkable globotriaosylceramide accumulation on electron microscopy, particularly in the major organs and their vascular smooth muscle cells. Regarding the vertebral arteries which sourced the cerebral hemorrhage, the effects of FD-induced vascular thickening and long-term renal failure-induced atherosclerosis were confirmed. Furthermore, the patient’s vascular sclerosis was modified with acquired factors such as lifestyle-related disease associated with obesity. We recommend intensified treatment for metabolic factors simultaneous with ERT to help in delaying the progression of FD.

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