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Supplementary Material for: Cardiovascular and Bleeding Outcomes with Anticoagulants across Kidney Disease Stages: Analysis of a National US Cohort

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posted on 31.03.2021, 08:55 by Sy J., Hsiung J.-T., Edgett D., Kalantar-Zadeh K., Streja E., Lau W.L.
Background: While direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are considered safe among patients without chronic kidney disease (CKD), the evidence is conflicting as to whether they are also safe in the CKD and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) population. In this observational cohort study, we examined whether DOACs are a safe alternative to warfarin across CKD stages for a variety of anticoagulation indications. Methods: Individuals on DOACs or warfarin were identified from OptumLabs® Data Warehouse (OLDW), a longitudinal dataset with de-identified administrative claims, from 2010 to 2017. Cox models with sensitivity analyses were used to assess the risk of cardiovascular disease and bleeding outcomes stratified by CKD stage. Results: Among 351,407 patients on anticoagulation, 45% were on DOACs. CKD stages 3–5 and ESKD patients comprised approximately 12% of the cohort. The most common indications for anticoagulation were atrial fibrillation (AF, 44%) and venous thromboembolism (VTE, 23%). DOACs were associated with a 22% decrease in the risk of cardiovascular outcomes (HR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.77–0.80, p < 0.001) and a 10% decrease in the risk of bleeding outcomes (HR 0.90, 95% CI: 0.88–0.92, p < 0.001) compared to warfarin after adjustment. On stratified analyses, DOACs maintained a superior safety profile across CKD stages. Patients with AF on DOACs had a consistently lower risk of cardiovascular and bleeding events than warfarin-treated patients, while among other indications (VTE, peripheral vascular disease, and arterial embolism), the risk of cardiovascular and bleeding events was the same among DOAC and warfarin users. Conclusion: DOACs may be a safer alternative to warfarin even among CKD and ESKD patients.