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Supplementary Material for: Centrilobular Emphysema Is Associated with Pectoralis Muscle Reduction in Current Smokers without Airflow Limitation

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posted on 2023-01-23, 15:28 authored by Maetani T., Tanabe N., Shiraishi Y., Shimada T., Terada S., Shima H., Mochizuki F., Sakamoto R., Kaji S., Oguma T., Sato S., Iijima H., Masuda I., Hirai T.
Background: Physiological and prognostic associations of centrilobular emphysema (CLE) and paraseptal emphysema (PSE) in smokers with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been increasingly recognized, but the associations with extrapulmonary abnormalities, such as muscle wasting, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular diseases, remain unestablished. Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate whether CLE was associated with extrapulmonary abnormalities independent of concomitant PSE in smokers without airflow limitation. Methods: This retrospective study consecutively enrolled current smokers without airflow limitation who underwent lung cancer screening with computed tomography and spirometry. CLE and PSE were visually identified based on the Fleischner Society classification system. Cross-sectional areas of pectoralis muscles (PM) and adjacent subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), bone mineral density (BMD), and coronary artery calcification (CAC) were evaluated. Results: Of 310 current smokers without airflow limitation, 83 (26.8%) had CLE. The PSE prevalence was higher (67.5% vs. 23.3%), and PM area, SAT area, and BMD were lower in smokers with CLE than in those without (PM area (mean), 34.5 versus 38.6 cm2; SAT area (mean), 29.3 versus 36.8 cm2; BMD (mean), 158.3 versus 178.4 Hounsfield unit), while CAC presence did not differ. In multivariable models, CLE was associated with lower PM area but not with SAT area or BMD, after adjusting for PSE presence, demographics, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s. Conclusions: The observed association between CLE and lower PM area suggests that susceptibility to skeletal muscle loss could be high in smokers with CLE even without COPD.