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Supplementary Material for: Cerebral Microbleeds Are Not Associated with Long-Term Cognitive Outcome in Patients with Transient Ischemic Attack or Minor Stroke

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posted on 19.02.2014, 00:00 by Brundel M., Kwa V.I.H., Bouvy W.H., Algra A., Kappelle L.J., Biessels G.J.
Background: Cerebral microbleeds have been related to cerebrovascular disease and dementia. They occur more frequently in patients with ischemic stroke than in the general population, but their relation to cognition in these patients is uncertain, particularly in the long run. We examined the relationship between microbleeds in patients with a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor ischemic stroke, and cognitive performance 4 years later. Methods: Participants were recruited from a prospective multicenter cohort of patients with a TIA or minor ischemic stroke (n = 397). They underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including a T2*-weighted sequence, within 3 months after their ischemic event. Microbleeds, atrophy, lacunae and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) were rated visually. Cognitive status was examined in 94% of all patients who were still alive after a mean interval of 3.8 years by the Dutch version of the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS; n = 280) or by an Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) obtained from a close relative if a TICS could not be obtained (n = 48). The relationship between presence of microbleeds and TICS or IQCODE score was assessed with linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level and time interval between MRI and cognitive evaluation. Results: The mean age was 65 ± 12 years at inclusion. The vascular event at inclusion was a TIA in 170 patients (52%) and a minor ischemic stroke in 155 patients (47%). Microbleeds were present in 11.6% of the patients. Patients with microbleeds were significantly older than patients without microbleeds (70 ± 9 vs. 64 ± 12 years), more often had hypertension, and had more cerebral atrophy, WMH and lacunae on MRI (all p < 0.05). The mean TICS score was 35.3 ± 5.9 for patients with microbleeds (n = 29) and 34.6 ± 5.2 for patients without microbleeds (n = 251); the adjusted mean difference (95% CI) was 1.69 (-0.01 to 3.38). The total IQCODE score was 66.0 ± 10.8 for patients with microbleeds (n = 9) and 63.1 ± 12.9 for patients without microbleeds (n = 39); the adjusted mean difference was 2.43 (-7.55 to 12.41). The relative risk (adjusted for age) for abnormal cognitive performance when having microbleeds was 1.19 (95% CI: 0.63-2.26). Subcortical atrophy was associated with lower TICS score [standardized regression coefficient β: -0.12 (-0.23 to 0.00); p = 0.04] and with lower IQCODE score [0.51 (0.19-0.83); p = 0.00]. The adjusted mean difference of IQCODE scores between patients with and those without a lacunar infarct was 0.39 (0.12-0.65; p = 0.01). Conclusions: In this sample of patients with a recent TIA or minor ischemic stroke, microbleeds were not associated with cognitive performance 4 years later. Apparently, this association is different from other markers of small vessel disease.