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Supplementary Material for: Characterization of Traumatic Brain Injury Research in the Middle East and North Africa Region: A Systematic Review

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posted on 10.02.2021, 07:36 by Al-Hajj S., Hammoud Z., Colnaric J., Ataya M., Macaron M.M., Kadi K., Harati H., Phipps H., Mondello S., Tamim H., AbouAbbass H., Kobeissy F., the TBI Working Group
Objectives: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a major health concern worldwide with a large impact in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region as a consequence of protracted wars and conflicts that adversely affect the general population. Currently, systematic TBI studies in the MENA region are lacking, nonetheless they are immensely needed to enhance trauma management and increase survival rates among TBI patients. This systematic review aims to characterize TBI in the MENA region to guide future policy choices and research efforts and inform tailored guidelines capable of improving TBI management and patient treatment and outcome. Furthermore, it will serve as a road map to evaluate and assess knowledge of trauma impact on regional health systems that can be adopted by health-care providers to raise awareness and improve trauma care. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search strategy of several databases including MEDLINE/Ovid, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL, Google Scholar, and the grey literature in accordance with the PROSPERO systematic review protocol CRD42017058952. Abstracts were screened, and selected eligible studies were reviewed independently by 2 reviewers. We collected demographics information along with TBI characteristics, mortality rates, and regional distribution. Data were extracted using REDCap and checked for accuracy. Results: The search strategy yielded 23,385 citations; 147 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. Motor vehicle accident (MVA) was the leading cause of TBI (41%) in the MENA region, followed by the military- (15.6%) and fall- (8.8%) related TBI. Males predominantly suffer from TBI-related injuries (85%), with a high prevalence of MVA- and military-related TBI injuries. The TBI mortality rate was 12.9%. The leading causes of mortality were MVA (68%), military (20.5%), and assault (2.9%). The vast majority of reported TBI severity was mild (63.1%) compared to moderate (10.7%) and severe TBI (20.2%). Patients mainly underwent a Glasgow Coma Scale assessment (22.1%), followed by computed tomography scan (8.9%) and surgery (4.1%). Conclusions: Despite its clinical, social, and economic burden, the evidence of TBI research in the MENA region is scarce. Further research and high-quality epidemiological studies are urgently needed to gain a deep understanding of the TBI burden in the region, facilitate the allocation of adequate resources, implement effective preventive and intervention strategies and advise on the TBI patient management as reflective on the TBI patterns and modes.

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