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Supplementary Material for: Clinical Outcome and Intraoperative Neurophysiology of the Lance-Adams Syndrome Treated with Bilateral Deep Brain Stimulation of the Globus Pallidus Internus: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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posted on 07.09.2020, 07:56 by Mure H., Toyoda N., Morigaki R., Fujita K., Takagi Y.
Background: The Lance-Adams syndrome (LAS) is a myoclonus syndrome caused by hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. LAS cases could be refractory to first-line medications, and the neuronal mechanism underlying LAS pathology remains unknown. Objectives: To describe a patient with LAS who underwent bilateral globus pallidus internus (GPi) stimulation and discuss the pathophysiology of LAS with intraoperative electrophysiological findings. Patients: A 79-year-old woman presented with a history of cardiopulmonary arrest due to internal carotid artery rupture following carotid endarterectomy after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. However, within 1 month, the patient developed sensory stimulation-induced myoclonus in her face and extremities. Because her myoclonic symptoms were refractory to pharmacotherapy, deep brain stimulation of the GPi was performed 1 year after the hypoxic attack. Results: Continuous bilateral GPi stimulation with optimal parameter settings remarkably improved the patient’s myoclonic symptoms. At the 2-year follow-up, her Unified Myoclonus Rating Scale score decreased from 90 to 24. In addition, we observed burst firing and interburst pause patterns on intraoperative microelectrode recordings of the bilateral GPi and stimulated this area as the therapeutic target. Conclusion: Our results show that impairment in the basal ganglion circuitry might be involved in the pathogenesis of myoclonus in patients with LAS.