Supplementary Material for: Clinical Outcomes of Patients with C3G or IC-MPGN Treated with the Factor D Inhibitor Danicopan: Final Results from Two Phase 2 Studies
datasetposted on 24.11.2022, 09:16 authored by Nester C., Appel G.B., Bomback A.S., Bouman K.P., Cook H.T., Daina E., Dixon B.P., Rice K., Najafian N., Hui J., Podosh S.D., Langman C.B., Lightstone L., Parikh S.V., Pickering M.C., Sperati C.J., Trachtman H., Tumlin J., deVries A.PJ., Wetzels J.F.M., Remuzzi G.
Introduction: C3 glomerulopathy (C3G) is an ultrarare, chronic and progressive nephropathy mediated by dysregulation of the alternative pathway of complement (AP), with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Targeted inhibition of proximal AP through factor D (FD) blockade represents a rational treatment approach. We present two phase 2 proof-of-concept clinical studies of the orally active FD inhibitor danicopan in patients with C3G and immune complex-mediated membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (IC-MPGN) (NCT03369236 and NCT03459443). Methods: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study in patients with C3G and a single-arm, open-label study in patients with C3G or IC-MPGN treated with danicopan are reported. The studies evaluated pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD), efficacy, and safety outcomes. The co-primary endpoints were change from baseline in composite biopsy score and the proportion of patients with a 30% reduction in proteinuria relative to baseline at 6 or 12 months. Results: Optimal systemic concentrations of danicopan were not achieved for complete and sustained inhibition of AP, although there was evidence that blockade of FD reduced AP activity shortly after drug administration. Consequently, limited clinical response was observed in key efficacy endpoints. While stable disease or improvement from baseline was seen in some patients, response was not consistent. The data confirmed the favorable safety profile of danicopan. Conclusion: While demonstrating a favorable safety profile, danicopan resulted in incomplete and inadequately sustained inhibition of AP, probably due to limitations in its PK/PD profile in C3G, leading to lack of efficacy. Complete and sustained AP inhibition is required for a clinical response in patients with C3G.