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Supplementary Material for: Comparison of Ductoscopy, Galactography, and Imaging Modalities for the Evaluation of Intraductal Lesions: A Critical Review

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posted on 28.10.2013, 00:00 by Sarica O., Ozturk E., Demirkurek H.C., Uluc F.
Background: Today, in cases of nipple discharge of unclear origin, the abundance of diagnostic procedures - a ‚diagnostic dilemma' - becomes apparent, because unequivocal indications and a current, standardized examination sequence are presently not available. The diagnostic workup of patients with nipple discharge usually includes the clinical history, physical examination, mammography, ultrasonography, galactography, and nipple discharge cytology, but not ductoscopy. Methods: In this review we analyze and discuss the possible role of ductoscopy in evaluating intraductal pathologies and its combined use with diagnostic imaging modalities. For this purpose, we reviewed and compared the results of the radiological, pathological, and surgical studies independently. Conclusions: Currently, there is no solitary accurate modality to reach our definitive purpose. Being aware of the capability of each diagnostic modality may take us closer to our target. Therefore, adjunct and appropriate use of multiple imaging modalities and ductoscopy is necessary to evaluate patients with nipple discharge.