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Supplementary Material for: Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 Inhibition as a Potential Treatment for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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posted on 2022-09-14, 06:19 authored by Shao Y.-Y., Hsu H.-W., Wo R.R., Wang H.-Y., Cheng A.-L., Hsu C.-H.
Introduction: Composite cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibition has shown potential as a treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in preclinical studies. We tested whether the specific inhibition of CDK9 was effective against HCC. Methods: The effects of two specific CDK9 inhibitors, BAY1143572 and AZD4573, in HCC cell lines were examined. We tested the in vivo efficacy of CDK9 inhibition in mouse xenograft models of HuH7 human HCC cells and in an orthotopic model of BNL mouse HCC cells. Overexpression and knockdown of CDK9 were performed to confirm the efficacy of CDK9 inhibition. Results: CDK9 inhibitors exhibited potent antiproliferative activities in HCC cells regardless of the levels of c-myc expression while inhibiting the downstream signals of CDK9, such as the phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II. These 2 CDK9 inhibitors induced apoptosis in HCC cells and reduced the expression of antiapoptotic proteins such as myeloid cell leukemia-1 and survivin. In the xenograft studies, mice receiving either CDK9 inhibitor exhibited significantly slower tumor growth than did the mice receiving vehicles. In the orthotopic model, the HCC growth in mice receiving a CDK9 inhibitor also tended to be slower than that in the control group. Overexpression of CDK9 in HuH7 cells reduced the efficacy of both CDK9 inhibitors. Knockdown of CDK9 expression reduced the proliferative activities of HCC cells. Conclusion: We demonstrated the in vitro and in vivo activity of CDK9 inhibition on multiple HCC cell lines. Our data support further clinical development of CDK9 inhibitors as a treatment for HCC.


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