Supplementary Material for: Decreased Amino Acid Concentrations are Involved in Congenital Heart Disease

Objective: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common malformation in China. In this study, we determined whether amino acids (AAs) in the amniotic fluid (AF) of patients with CHD changed and clarified whether AAs would affect the insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF1R). Method: Fifty-seven AF samples from pregnant women carrying CHD-affected (n = 17) or normal (n = 40) fetuses were collected. The AA concentrations were measured in AF by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The IGF axis-related and epigenetic marker proteins in AF after serial treatments were quantified using a multiple reaction monitoring approach. IGF1R and P300 were also confirmed by Western blot in AF without any treatment. Results: Most AAs decreased in the AF of patients with CHD. P300 and IGF1R decreased significantly in the CHD group. When H9C2 cells were cultured in one-half AA concentrations, the expression of P300 and IGF1R was reduced. Histone acetylation of the IGF1R promoter also decreased. Conclusion: Our data suggest that AAs decreased in the AF of patients with CHD. AAs may partly regulate the IGF1R through P300, which may be involved in heart development.