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Supplementary Material for: Denosumab-Induced Hypocalcemia and Hyperparathyroidism in de novo Kidney Transplant Recipients

posted on 08.09.2021, 10:22 by Cianciolo G., Tondolo F., Barbuto S., Iacovella F., Zavatta G., Altieri P., Grandinetti V., Comai G., Cozzolino M., LaManna G.
Introduction: Denosumab represents a realistic treatment option to increase bone mineral density in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). It is still unknown how and at what extent posttransplantation bone disease and graft function influence the effects of denosumab on mineral metabolism indexes. In this study, we analyze risk factors of hypocalcemia and parathyroid hormone (PTH) increase after denosumab administration in eighteen de novo KTRs and its management before and after this treatment. Methods: We conducted a monocentric, observational, prospective study on de novo KTRs. All KTRs enrolled received a single 60 mg subcutaneous dose of denosumab every 6 months. Before kidney transplantation, no patients were treated with calcio-mimetic. After kidney transplantation and before antiresorptive therapy, no patients were treated with calcio-mimetic drugs and/or vitamin D receptor agonists, while all patients received nutritional vitamin D supplementation (from 1,000 IU to 1,500 IU daily). Results: Hypocalcemia was related to the degree of lumbar osteoporosis (p = 0.047); the increase in the PTH level was correlated to baseline bone turnover markers (bone alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, and β-C-terminal telopeptide), the 25 OH status, and eGFR. The introduction of calcitriol, after the PTH increase, in addition to cholecalciferol was necessary to ensure an adequate control of serum calcium and PTH during a follow-up of 15 months. Following the treatment with denosumab, it was observed an improvement of areal bone mineral density both at lumbar and femoral sites with a mean percentual increase of 1.74% and 0.25%, respectively. Conclusions: Denosumab is an effective treatment for bone disease in KTRs. In our study, the increase in PTH is not a transient event but prolonged throughout the follow-up period and requires continuous supplementation therapy with calcitriol.