Supplementary Material for: Diabetic Retinopathy as a Risk Factor Associated with the Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
datasetposted on 09.01.2019, 10:36 by Azuma S., Asahina Y., Kakinuma S., Azuma K., Miyoshi M., Inoue E., Tsunoda T., Sato A., Kaneko S., Nagata H., Kawai-Kitahata F., Murakawa M., Nitta S., Itsui Y., Tomita M., Nakagawa M., Watanabe M.
Background: The risk factors associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are still unclear. The aim of the present study was to identify such risk factors in NAFLD patients who developed HCC. Methods: Between April 2000 and December 2016, a total of 182 patients with NAFLD were enrolled in this study; of these, only 22 patients had HCC. To identify risk factors, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. To identify risk factors other than the degree of fibrosis, propensity matched analysis adjusted by the NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) was carried out on 44 patients. Multivariate and survival analyses were also performed in HCC patients. Results: In 182 patients, multivariate analysis highlighted the NFS (OR 2.275; p < 0.001) and hypertension (OR 5.868; p = 0.037) as independent factors that were significantly associated with the development of HCC. After adjustment for the NFS, multivariate analysis identified diabetic retinopathy (OR 8.654; p = 0.017) as an independent factor that was significantly associated with the development of HCC. For predicting the development of HCC, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of diabetic retinopathy was significantly higher than that of diabetes (0.731 vs. 0.615; p < 0.001). In patients with HCC, multivariate analysis indicated that the NFS were significantly associated with diabetic retinopathy. Conclusions: Diabetic retinopathy as well as liver fibrosis is a risk factor that associates with the development of HCC in NAFLD patients. Therefore, NAFLD patients with diabetic retinopathy should undergo careful screening for HCC.