Supplementary Material for: Dialysis Amyloid Deposition in the Aortic Valve and Its Association with Aortic Stenosis

Background: The relationship between dialysis amyloid (DA) deposition in the aortic valve (AV) and aortic stenosis (AS) is unknown. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. AV specimens of dialysis patients (median vintage: 8.8 years) consecutively collected from cardiac surgeries (n = 56) or autopsies (n = 13) were examined by a board-certified pathologist blinded to clinical data. DAs were considered to be present if deposits were stained both by Congo red with apple-green birefringence under polarized light and by anti-β2-microblobulin antibody. Degree of deposition was graded as follows: Amyloid (-), no deposit; Amyloid (1+), occasional small deposits; Amyloid (2+), multiple small to large deposits or a single large deposit. Calcification was defined as a calcified deposit with a diameter >1 mm in the specimen. Severe AS (sAS) was defined as a mean gradient >50 mm Hg by echocardiogram. We examined the proportion of DAs and the association between DAs and the sAS. Results: DAs were present in 71% (n = 49) of specimens and primarily co-localized with calcification. Non-dialysis related amyloid was found in one specimen. After excluding this specimen, sAS was associated with ‘Amyloid (1+) and Calcification >1 mm' and ‘Amyloid (2+) and Calcification >1 mm' (vs. ‘Amyloid (-) and Calcification ≤1 mm', odds ratios (ORs): 13.5 and 34.2, respectively). Furthermore, after adjustment for covariates, sAS was found to be associated with ‘Amyloid (2+) and Calcification >1 mm' (OR: 24.3). Conclusions: DA deposition in the AV was prevalent among dialysis patients. DA deposition with accompanying calcification might contribute to the severity of AS.