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Supplementary Material for: Dietary Fibers and Proteins Modulate Behavior via the Activation of Intestinal Gluconeogenesis

posted on 19.03.2021, 06:36 by Sinet F., Soty M., Zemdegs J., Guiard B., Estrada J., Malleret G., Silva M., Mithieux G., Gautier-Stein A.
Introduction: Several studies have suggested that diet, especially the one enriched in microbiota-fermented fibers or fat, regulates behavior. The underlying mechanisms are currently unknown. We previously reported that certain macronutrients (fermentable fiber and protein) regulate energy homeostasis via the activation of intestinal gluconeogenesis (IGN), which generates a neural signal to the brain. We hypothesized that these nutriments might control behavior using the same gut-brain circuit. Methods: Wild-type and IGN-deficient mice were fed chow or diets enriched in protein or fiber. Changes in their behavior were assessed using suited tests. Hippocampal neurogenesis, extracellular levels of serotonin, and protein expression levels were assessed by immunofluorescence, in vivo dialysis, and Western blotting, respectively. IGN was rescued by infusing glucose into the portal vein of IGN-deficient mice. Results: We show here that both fiber- and protein-enriched diets exert beneficial actions on anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors. These benefits do not occur in mice lacking IGN. Consistently, IGN-deficient mice display hallmarks of depressive-like disorders, including decreased hippocampal neurogenesis, basal hyperactivity, and deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which are associated with increased expression of the precursor of corticotropin-releasing hormone in the hypothalamus and decreased expression of the glucocorticoid receptor in the hippocampus. These neurobiological alterations are corrected by portal glucose infusion mimicking IGN. Conclusion: IGN translates nutritional information, allowing the brain to finely coordinate energy metabolism and behavior.