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Supplementary Material for: Dietary fat composition affects hepatic angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in HCV core gene transgenic mice

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posted on 16.09.2022, 13:48 authored by Diao P., Wang Y., Jia F., Wang X., Hu X., Kimura T., Sato Y., Moriya K., Koike K., Nakayama J., Tanaka N.
Introduction: Previous research has demonstrated that an isocaloric diet rich in trans fatty acid (TFA), saturated fatty acid (SFA), and cholesterol (Chol) promoted steatosis-derived hepatic tumorigenesis in hepatitis C virus core gene transgenic (HCVcpTg) mice in different manners. Growth factor signaling and ensuing angiogenesis/lymphangiogenesis are key factors in hepatic tumorigenesis that have become recent therapeutic targets for hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the influence of dietary fat composition on these factors remains unclear. This study investigated whether the type of dietary fat would have a specific impact on hepatic angiogenesis/lymphangiogenesis in HCVcpTg mice. Methods: Male HCVcpTg mice were treated with a control diet, an isocaloric diet containing 1.5% cholesterol (Chol diet), or a diet replacing soybean oil with hydrogenated coconut oil (SFA diet) for a period of 15 months, or with shortening (TFA diet) for 5 months. The degree of angiogenesis/lymphangiogenesis and the expression of growth factors, including fibroblast growth factor (FGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), were evaluated in non-tumorous liver tissues using quantitative mRNA measurement, immunoblot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. Results: Long-term feeding of SFA and TFA diets to HCVcpTg mice increased the expressions of vascular endothelial cell indicators, such as CD31 and TEK tyrosine kinase, in addition to lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1, indicating that angiogenesis/lymphangiogenesis were up-regulated only by these fatty acid-enriched diets. This promoting effect correlated with elevated VEGF-C and FGF receptor 2 and 3 levels in the liver. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1α, both key regulators of VEGF-C expression, were enhanced in the SFA- and TFA-rich diet groups as well. The Chol diet significantly increased the expressions of such growth factors as FGF2 and PDGF subunit B (PDGF-B), without any detectable impact on angiogenesis/lymphangiogenesis. Conclusion: This study revealed that diets rich in SFA and TFA, but not Chol, might stimulate hepatic angiogenesis/lymphangiogenesis mainly through the JNK-HIF1α-VEGF-C axis. Our observations indicate an importance of dietary fat species for preventing hepatic tumorigenesis.

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