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Supplementary Material for: Disease Burden, Risk Factors, and Recent Trends of Liver Cancer: A Global Country-Level Analysis

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posted on 30.03.2021, 07:02 by Huang J., Lok V., Ngai C.H., Chu C., Patel H.K., ThoguluvaChandraseka V., Zhang L., Chen P., Wang S., Lao X.-Q., Tse L.A., Xu W., Zheng Z.-J., Wong M.C.S.
Background: This study aimed to evaluate the updated disease burden, risk factors, and temporal trends of liver cancer based on age, sex, and country. Methods: We estimated the incidence of liver cancer and its attribution to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 2018 based on the Global Cancer Observatory and World Health Organization (WHO) Cancer Causes database. We extracted the prevalence of risk factors from the WHO Global Health Observatory to examine the associations by weighted linear regression. The trend analysis used data from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents and the WHO mortality database from 48 countries. Temporal patterns of incidence and mortality were calculated using average annual percent change (AAPC) by joinpoint regression analysis. Results: The global incidence of liver cancer was (age-standardized rate [ASR]) 9.3 per 100,000 population in 2018, and there was an evident disparity in the incidence related to HBV (ASR 0.2–41.2) and HCV (ASR 0.4–43.5). A higher HCV/HBV-related incidence ratio was associated with a higher level of alcohol consumption (β 0.49), overweight (β 0.51), obesity (β 0.64), elevated cholesterol (β 0.70), gross domestic product (β 0.20), and Human Development Index (HDI; β 0.45). An increasing trend in incidence was identified in many countries, especially for male individuals, population aged ≥50 years, and countries with a higher HCV/HBV-related liver cancer incidence ratio. Countries with the most drastic increase in male incidence were reported in India (AAPC 7.70), Ireland (AAPC 5.60), Sweden (AAPC 5.72), the UK (AAPC 5.59), and Norway (AAPC 4.87). Conclusion: We observed an overall increasing trend of liver cancer, especially among male subjects, older individuals, and countries with a higher prevalence of HCV-related liver cancer. More efforts are needed in enhancing lifestyle modifications and accessibility of antiviral treatment for these populations. Future studies should investigate the reasons behind these epidemiological changes.