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Supplementary Material for: Disease burden and epidemiological trends of chronic kidney disease at the global, regional, national levels from 1990 to 2019

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posted on 2023-09-15, 11:07 authored by Ying M., Shao X., Qin H., Yin P., Lin Y., Wu J., Ren J., Zheng Y.
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a serious public health issue worldwide, but the disease burden of CKD caused by different etiologies and changing trends have not been fully examined. Methods: We collected data from Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 (GBD 2019), including incident cases, age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and age-standardized DALY rate between 1990 and 2019 by region, etiology, age, and sex, and calculated the estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) of the rate to evaluate the epidemiological trends. Results: Globally, incident cases of CKD increased from 7.80 million in 1990 to 18.99 million in 2019, and DALYs increased from 21.50 million to 41.54 million. ASIR increased with an EAPC of 0.69 (95% UI 0.49-0.89) and reached 233.65 per 100,000 in 2019, while the age-standardized DALY rate increased with an EAPC of 0.30 (95% UI 0.17-0.43) and reached 514.86 per 100,000. North Africa and Middle East, central Latin America and North America had the highest ASIR in 2019. Central Latin America had the highest age-standardized DALY rate meanwhile. Almost all countries experienced an increase in ASIR, and over 50% of countries had an increasing trend in age-standardized DALY rate from 1990 to 2019. CKD due to diabetes mellitus type 2 and hypertension accounted for the largest disease burden with 85% incident cases and 66% DALYs in 2019 of known causes, with the highest growth in age-standardized DALY rate and a similar geographic pattern to that of total CKD. Besides, the highest incidence rate of total and four specific CKDs were identified in people aged 70-plus years, who also had the highest DALY rate with a stable trend after 2010. Females had a higher ASIR, while males had a higher age-standardized DALY rate, the gap of which was most distinctive in CKD due to hypertension. Conclusion: The disease burden of CKD remains substantial and continues to grow globally. From 1990 to 2019, global incident cases of CKD have more than doubled and DALYs have almost doubled and surpassed 40 million years. CKD due to diabetes mellitus type 2 and hypertension contribute nearly 2/3 DALYs in 2019 of known causes, and had witnessed the highest growth in age-standardized DALY rate. Etiology-specific prevention strategies should be placed a high priority on the goal of precise control of CKD.

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