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Supplementary Material for: Distinct Gene Expression Patterns Defining Human Osteoblasts' Response to BMP2 Treatment: Is the Therapeutic Success All a Matter of Timing?

posted on 22.07.2016, 07:17 by Ehnert S., Aspera-Werz R.H., Freude T., Reumann M.K., Ochs B.G., Bahrs C., Schröter S., Wintermeyer E., Nussler A.K., Pscherer S.
Background: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play a key role in bone formation. Local application of BMP2 (Dibotermin alfa) supports bone formation when applied to complex fractures. However, up to 33% of patients do not respond to this therapy.Purpose: Aiming to investigate whether inter-individual responses to BMP2 treatment can be predicted by gene expression patterns, we investigated the effect of BMP2 on primary human osteoblasts and THP-1 cell-derived osteoclasts from 110 donors. Methods: Osteoblasts were obtained by collagenase digestion of spongy bone tissues. Osteoclasts were differentiated from THP-1 cells using the conditioned media of the osteoblasts. Viability was determined by resazurin conversion. As functional characteristics AP and Trap5B activity were measured. Gene expression levels were determined by RT-PCR in 21 of the 110 evaluated donors and visualized by electrophoresis. Results: Based on our data, we could classify three response groups: (i) In 51.8% of all donors, BMP2 treatment induced osteoblast function. These donors strongly expressed the BMP2 inhibitor Noggin (NOG), the alternative BMP2 receptors repulsive guidance molecule B (RGMb) and activin receptor-like kinase 6(Alk6), as well as the Wnt inhibitor sclerostin (SOST). (ii) In 17.3% of all donors, BMP2 treatment induced viability. In these donors, the initial high SOST expression significantly dropped with BMP2 treatment. (iii) 30.9% of all donors were not directly affected by BMP2 treatment. These donors expressed high levels of the pseudoreceptor BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI) and lacked SOSTexpression. In all donors, SOST expression correlated directly with receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression, defining the cells' potential to stimulate osteoclastogenesis. Conclusions: Our data identified three donor groups profiting from BMP2 treatment either directly via stimulation of osteoblast function or viability and/or indirectly via inhibition of osteoclastogenesis, depending on their expression of BAMBISOSTNOG, and RANKL. On the basis of patients' respective expression profiles, the clinical application of BMP2 as well as its timing might be modified in order to better fit the patients' needs to promote bone formation or to inhibit bone resorption.