Supplementary Material for: Early Renal Ultrasound in Congenital Solitary Kidney May Help to Select Patients at Lower Risk of Associated Vesicoureteral Reflux
datasetposted on 18.06.2021, 08:11 by Marzuillo P., Guarino S., Ursi D., DiSessa A., Rambaldi P.F., LaManna A., MiragliadelGiudice E., Polito C.
Background: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) may be associated with renal dysplasia and reduced renal length (RL). The diagnosis of VUR in children with congenital solitary functioning kidney (CSFK) identifies patients at risk of kidney injury but exposes to invasive procedures. Objective: We aimed to test the hypothesis that an RL >2 standard deviation score (SDS) in the first months of life – reflecting renal hyperplasia – could identify CSFK patients with lower probability of presenting VUR. Method: We retrospectively selected 207 CSFK patients with prenatal diagnosis of CSFK and having undergone renal ultrasound (RUS) both at 0–3 and 10–13 months of life, renal scintigraphy, and cystourethrography/cystoscintigraphy. We compared the cumulative proportion of an RL >2 SDS by Kaplan-Meier analysis and evaluated the odds to present VUR of patients with an RL >2 SDS both at the first and second RUS. Results: Overall, 3.3% of patients with VUR and 22.0% of patients without VUR presented an RL >2 SDS at the first RUS (p = 0.02). At the second RUS, 53.3% of patients with VUR and 52.5% of patients without VUR presented an RL >2 SDS (p = 0.93). Patients without VUR presented higher cumulative proportion of an RL >2 SDS at 3 months of life than those with VUR (p = 0.02). This difference however disappeared at 11 and 13 months of age (p = 0.17 and p = 0.54, respectively). An RL >2 SDS within 3 months of life presented an OR for VUR of 0.12 (95% CI: 0.02–0.92; p = 0.005), while an RL >2 SDS at 12 months of life presented an OR for VUR of 0.96 (95% CI: 0.45–2.1; p = 0.93). Conclusion: Only an RUS made in the first months of life could identify CSFK patients at lower risk of presenting an associated VUR.