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Supplementary Material for: Effect of Enteral Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Retinopathy of Prematurity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

posted on 21.06.2022, 11:15 authored by Diggikar S., Aradhya A.S., Swamy R.S., Namachivayam A., Chandrasekaran M.
Background: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are critical for the maturation of the brain and retina. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a preventable cause of blindness in preterm infants. LCPUFA have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiangiogenesis effects. Supplementation of enteral LCPUFA might mitigate the incidence of ROP in these infants. Available limited randomized studies showed promising results. We aimed to assess the effect of enteral supplementation of LCPUFA on ROP in preterm infants. Methods: We followed PRISMA guidelines and searched MEDLINE, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, and Cochrane Registry from 1990 to 2021 for the studies that examined the effects of enteral LCPUFA and ROP in preterm infants. We included the studies that satisfied the predefined inclusion criteria. RevMan 5.3 software derived the forest plot of pooled relative risk. We assessed the quality of all the included studies using GRADE recommendations. Results: Nine studies were eligible for the meta-analysis involving 2,482 infants. Of the nine RCTs, six studies provided LCPUFA (DHA/AA) as a separate intervention in different concentrations, and three studies provided formula milk enriched with LCPUFA. In addition, five studies recruited infants below 32 weeks of gestational age. Supplementation of LCPUFA did not reduce the incidence of severe ROP (RR 0.71, 95% CI: 0.50–1.01, 5 studies, 1,822 infants) with very low CoE or any ROP (RR 0.95, 95% CI: 0.73–1.12, 6 studies, 1,177 infants) with very low CoE or ROP requiring treatment (RR 0.92, 95% CI: 0.62–1.38, 4 studies, 1,395 infants) with very low CoE. Regarding safety outcomes, enteral LCPUFA did not increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis or mortality. Discussion/Conclusion: Supplementation of enteral LCPUFA to preterm infants did not reduce ROP incidence; however, there was a trend toward benefit in mitigating severe form of ROP. More well-designed, large, randomized controlled studies are warranted.