Supplementary Material for: Effect of L-Carnitine on Amino Acid Metabolism in Elderly Patients Undergoing Regular Hemodialysis
datasetposted on 22.01.2020 by Kido J., Inoue H., Shimotsu H., Yoshida Y., Suzuki Y., Nakamura K., Endo F., Matsumoto S.
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Introduction: Among patients regularly undergoing hemodialysis, hypocarnitinaemia often develops as a consequence of inadequate dietary intake, reduced synthesis in the body, and considerable losses during hemodialysis. Objectives: To evaluate the effects of L-carnitine supplementation on patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) who underwent hemodialysis. Methods: Thirty-one patients with ESKD, comprising 18 men and 13 women, with a median age of 72 (range 58–89) years, who underwent regular hemodialysis received treatment with L-carnitine for 1 year. The total and free carnitine, acylcarnitine, and amino acids (AA) levels before and after L-carnitine treatment were analyzed, and the blood biochemistry results and clinical profiles of the subjects were compared before and after treatment. Results: The median (interquartile range [IQR]) serum total and free carnitine and acylcarnitine levels significantly increased from 34.5 (28.2–44.3), 20.9 (15.8–27.6), and 14.1 (11.2–17.6) µmol/L, respectively to 407.4 (371.6–493.5), 270.2 (228.3–316.0), and 155.0 (136.1–168.5) µmol/L, respectively, after treatment (all p < 0.001). The median (IQR) blood valine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and citrulline levels increased from 0.94 (0.80–1.09), 0.45 (0.39–0.55), 0.61 (0.56–0.79), and 1.04 (0.79–1.26) mg/dL, respectively to 1.24 (1.13–1.54), 0.76 (0.62–0.85), 0.90 (0.70–1.04), and 1.22 (0.92–1.39) mg/dL, respectively, following L-carnitine treatment (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.002, and p = 0.030, respectively); however, the median (IQR) blood arginine level decreased from 0.20 (0.13–0.24) to 0.09 (0.06–0.14) mg/dL after treatment (p < 0.001). The median (IQR) percentage fractional shortening (41.5 vs. 41.9%; p = 0.012) and left ventricular ejection fraction (65.2 vs. 67.3%; p = 0.036) increased significantly following treatment. Conclusions: L-Carnitine increased the blood acylcarnitine levels, enhanced fatty acid metabolism, and affected AAs metabolism; this may be beneficial for energy production within the cardiac and skeletal muscles.