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Supplementary Material for: Effect of Salbutamol on Lung Ventilation in Children with Cystic Fibrosis: Comprehensive Assessment Using Spirometry, Multiple-Breath Washout, and Functional Lung Magnetic Resonance Imaging

posted on 22.11.2021, 10:08 by Kieninger E., Willers C., Röthlisberger K., Yammine S., Pusterla O., Bauman G., Stranzinger E., Bieri O., Latzin P., Casaulta C.
Background: Inhalation therapy is one of the cornerstones of the daily treatment regimen in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Recommendations regarding the addition of bronchodilators, especially salbutamol are conflicting due to the lack of evidence. New diagnostic measures such as multiple-breath washout (MBW) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have the potential to reveal new insights into bronchodilator effects in patients with CF. Objective: The objective of the study was to comprehensively assess the functional response to nebulized inhalation with salbutamol in children with CF. Methods: Thirty children aged 6–18 years with stable CF performed pulmonary function tests, MBW, and matrix pencil-MRI before and after standardized nebulized inhalation of salbutamol. Results: Lung clearance index decreased (improved) by −0.24 turnover (95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.53 to 0.06; p = 0.111). Percentage of the lung volume with impaired fractional ventilation and relative perfusion decreased (improved) by −0.79% (CI: −1.99 to 0.42; p = 0.194) and −1.31% (CI: −2.28 to −0.35; p = 0.009), respectively. Forced expiratory volume (FEV1) increased (improved) by 0.41 z-score (CI: 0.24–0.58; p < 0.0001). We could not identify specific clinical factors associated with a more pronounced effect of salbutamol. Conclusions: There is a positive short-term effect of bronchodilator inhalation on FEV1 in patients with CF, which is independent of ventilation inhomogeneity. Heterogeneous response between patients suggests that for prediction of a therapeutic effect this should be tested by spirometry in every patient individually.