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Supplementary Material for: Effect of exposure to paternal smoking on overweight and obesity in children: findings from the Children Lifeway Cohort in Shenzhen, southern China

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posted on 23.06.2022, 07:31 authored by You Y., Liu R., Zhou H., Wu R., Lin R., Li B., Liu H., Qiao Y., Guo P., Ding Z., Zhang Q.
Introduction: Paternal smoking associated with childhood overweight and obesity has been a concern, but studies have not investigated smoking exposure and smoking details. We investigated the association of exposures from paternal smoking as well as smoking details on offspring overweight/obesity. Methods: A total of 4513 children (aged 7-8 years) in Shenzhen were enrolled. Four different exposures from paternal smoking as well as smoking quantity, duration of smoking and age of starting smoking details were the exposure variables and demographic characteristics, circumstances of birth, dietary intake, lifestyle and nonpaternal smoking exposure were covariates in logistic regression analysis to determine the effect of paternal smoking on childhood overweight/obesity, estimating odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Paternal smoking was positively associated with childhood overweight/obesity (p<0.05). Moreover, only pre-conception exposure, and both pre- and post-conception exposure were significantly associated with childhood overweight/obesity (OR 1.54 (95% CI 1.14-2.08) and OR 1.73 (95% CI 1.14-2.61) respectively), restricted to boys but not girls. Furthermore, for children with only pre-conception paternal-smoking exposure, the dose–response relation was positive between smoking quantity, duration of smoking, age at starting and overweight/obesity for boy offspring (P trend <0.001). We did not find any significant association between only post-natal exposure to paternal smoking and childhood overweight/obesity (P>0.05). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that paternal smoking is associated with boys’ overweight/obesity, and this association may due to the paternal smoking exposure before conception rather than the post-natal exposure to paternal smoking. Reducing paternal smoking exposure before conception might help reduce overweight/obesity in boys.