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Supplementary Material for: Frequency and functional consequences of low appendicular lean mass and sarcopenic obesity in patients with asthma referred for pulmonary rehabilitation

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posted on 2023-05-25, 10:29 authored by Anna Csala, Margaret Clapson, Lorrain Brennan, Jacquie Flynn, Vas Novelli, Vanessa Naidoo, Tsiory H. Andrianavalona, Daniel Castellanos, Tolotra N. Ramihangihajason, Armand Rasoamiaramanana
Introduction: one of the most prominent extra-pulmonary manifestations in patients with chronic respiratory disease are changes in body weight and composition. However, the frequency and functional consequences of low appendicular lean mass (ALM) or sarcopenic obesity (SO) in patients with asthma is largely unknown. Therefore, the aims of the current study were to assess the frequency and functional consequences of low appendicular lean mass index (ALMI) and SO in patients with asthma. Methods: a retrospectively analyzed cross-sectional study was conducted in 687 patients with asthma (60% female, 58±13 years, FEV1 76±25%pred) referred for comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). Body composition, pulmonary function, exercise capacity, quadriceps muscle function, and quality of life were assessed. Patients were classified as presenting low ALMI according to the 10th percentiles of age-sex-body mass index (BMI)-specific reference values and as having SO according to the diagnostic procedure proposed by the 2022 ESPEN/EASO consensus. In addition, clinical outcomes between patients with normal and low ALMI or with and without SO were compared. Results: the frequency of patients classified as low ALMI was 19%, whereas 45% of the patients were obese. Among the obese patients, 29% had SO. In patients with normal weight, those with low ALMI were younger and had worse pulmonary function, exercise capacity and quadriceps muscle function than those with normal ALMI (all p<0.05). Overweight patients with low ALMI presented poorer pulmonary function and quadriceps muscle function (both strength and total work capacity). In obese class I patients, those with low ALMI showed lower quadriceps strength and maximal oxygen uptake acquired during cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Both male and female patients with SO showed lower quadriceps muscle function and reduced maximal exercise capacity compared to non-SO asthma patients. Conclusion/discussion: Approximately one in five asthma patients presented low ALM when age-sex-BMI-specific ALMI cut-offs were applied. Obesity is common among patients with asthma referred for PR. Among the obese patients a significant proportion presented SO. Low ASM and SO were associated with worse functional outcomes.

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