Supplementary Material for: Galectin-9 Produced by Intestinal Epithelial Cells Enhances Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity in Dendritic Cells in a PI3K- and p38-Dependent Manner

posted on 08.09.2017 by de Kivit S., Kostadinova A.I., Kerperien J., Ayechu Muruzabal V., Morgan M.E., Knippels L.M.J., Kraneveld A.D., Garssen J., Willemsen L.E.M.
Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) drive regulatory T cell (Treg) responses by promoting the differentiation of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-expressing CD103+ dendritic cells (DC). Apical stimulation of TLR9 by CpG DNA on IEC supports galectin-9 expression by IEC, which is promoted by short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (GF). While galectin-9 can induce the maturation of monocyte-derived DC (moDC), the contribution of galectin-9 on the induction of ALDH activity in DC is not known. To this end, DC were stimulated with galectin-9, and ALDH activity and the expression of CD103 were assessed. ALDH activity was increased by moDC exposed to galectin-9, while the expression of CD103 remained unaltered. Galectin-9 secreted by IEC apically exposed to CpG DNA and GF enhanced ALDH activity, but not CD103 expression by moDC, which was abrogated upon galectin-9 neutralization. Similar observations were found in murine GM-CSF-cultured bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC). Using Flt3L-cultured BMDC and ex vivo murine splenic DC, it was observed that galectin-9 only enhanced ALDH activity in the presence of GM-CSF in CD103- cells. The induction of ALDH activity in BMDC was dependent on p38 and PI3K signaling. These data indicate a novel role for galectin-9 in modulating innate immunity by inducing ALDH activity in DC.