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Supplementary Material for: Gender-Related Differences in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

posted on 02.08.2021, 13:49 by Trongtorsak A., Polpichai N., Thangjui S., Kewcharoen J., Yodsuwan R., Devkota A., Friedman H.J., Estrada A.Q.
Background: Gender-related differences in phenotypic expression and outcomes have been established in many cardiac conditions; however, the impact of gender in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) remains unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the differences in clinical outcomes between female and male HCM patients. Methods: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from inception to October 2020. Included were cohort studies that compared outcomes of interest including all-cause mortality, HCM-related mortality, and worsening heart failure (HF) or HF hospitalization between male and female. Data from each study were combined using the random effects model to calculate pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Eleven retrospective cohort studies with a total of 9,427 patients (3,719 females) were included. Female gender was significantly associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (pooled OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.26–2.10, p ≤ 0.001), HCM-related mortality (pooled OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.08–2.01, p = 0.015), and worsening HF or HF hospitalization (pooled OR = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.76–2.39, p ≤ 0.001). Conclusions: Female gender was associated with a worse prognosis in HCM. These findings suggest the need for improved care in women including early identification of disease and more possible aggressive management. Moreover, gender-based strategy may benefit in HCM patients.