Supplementary Material for: Global Response of Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395 to Deletion of Its 262-kb Chromid Encoding Antibiotic Synthesis

The marine alphaproteobacterium Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395, a member of the Roseobacter group, was recently shown to markedly enhance growth upon deletion of its 262-kb chromid encoding biosynthesis of tropodithietic acid (TDA). To scrutinize the metabolic/regulatory adaptations that underlie enhanced growth of the Δ262 mutant, its transcriptome and proteome compared to the wild type were investigated in process-controlled bioreactors with Casamino Acids as growth substrate. Genome resequencing revealed only few additional genetic changes (a heterogenic insertion, prophage activation, and several point mutations) between wild type and Δ262 mutant, albeit with no conceivable effect on the studied growth physiology. The abundances of the vast majority of transcripts and proteins involved in the catabolic network for complete substrate oxidation to CO2 were found to be unchanged, suggesting that the enhanced amino acid utilization of the Δ262 mutant did not require elevated synthesis of most enzymes of the catabolic network. Similarly, constituents of genetic information processing and cellular processes remained mostly unchanged. In contrast, 426 genes displayed differential expression, of which 410 were localized on the 3.2-Mb chromosome, 5 on the 65-kb chromid, and 11 on the 78-kb chromid. Notably, the branched-chain amino transferase IlvE acting on rapidly utilized Val, Ile, and Leu was upregulated. Moreover, the transportome was reconfigured, as evidenced from increased abundances of transcripts and proteins of several uptake systems for amino acids and inorganic nutrients (e.g., phosphate). Some components of the respiratory chain were also upregulated, which correlates with the higher respiration rates of the Δ262 mutant. Furthermore, chromosomally encoded transcripts and proteins that are peripherally related to TDA biosynthesis (e.g., the serine acyl transferase CysE) were strongly downregulated in the Δ262 mutant. Taken together, these observations reflect adaptations to enhanced growth as well as the functional interconnectivity of the replicons of P. inhibens DSM 17395.