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Supplementary Material for: Green nail syndrome treated with ozenoxacin: two case reports

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posted on 2023-11-16, 12:23 authored by Cosio T., Petruccelli R., Gaziano R., Fontana C., Favaro M., Zampini P., Pistoia E.S., Diluvio L., Lozzi F., Bianchi L., Campione E.
Green nail syndrome (GNS) is a persistent greenish pigmentation of the nail plate, originally described in 1944 by Goldman and Fox, due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Recently, pulmonary co-infection of P. aeruginosa and Achromobacter spp. have been described in patients with cystic fibrosis. Achromobacter xylosoxidans is a multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogen involved in lung and soft tissue skin infections. Both Achromobacter xylosoxidans and P. aeruginosa are mainly found in humid environments or in water. There are no recognized co-infections due to P. aeruginosa and A. xylosoxidans in the skin and appendages. We describe two cases of GNS, the first due to P. aeruginosa associated with Achromobacter xylosoxidans; the other due to MDR P. aeruginosa, both successfully treated with topical ozenoxacin 1% cream daily for 12 weeks. The clinical management of GNS can be confusing, especially when the bacterial culture result is inconsistent or when non-Pseudomonas bacteria are isolated. In our case, due to the co-infection of P. aeruginosa and Achromobacter spp., local treatment with ozenoxacin - the first nonfluorinated quinolone - could be a safe and effective treatment in case of MDR nail infections. Further studies are required to evaluate clinical isolation from nail infections and the co-presence of P. aeruginosa and A. xylosoxidans.


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