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Supplementary Material for: Heartbeat-Evoked Potential in Major Depressive Disorder: A Biomarker for Differential Treatment Prediction between Venlafaxine and rTMS?

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posted on 2023-03-16, 05:37 authored by Zwienenberg L., vanDijk H., Enriquez-Geppert S., vanderVinne N., Gevirtz R., Gordon E., Sack A.T., Arns M.
Introduction: Currently, major depressive disorder (MDD) treatment plans are based on trial-and-error, and remission rates remain low. A strategy to replace trial-and-error and increase remission rates could be treatment stratification. We explored the heartbeat-evoked potential (HEP) as a biomarker for treatment stratification to either antidepressant medication or rTMS treatment. Methods: Two datasets were analyzed: (1) the International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment in Depression (iSPOT-D; n = 1,008 MDD patients, randomized to escitalopram, sertraline, or venlafaxine, and n = 336 healthy controls) and (2) a multi-site, open-label rTMS study (n = 196). The primary outcome measure was remission. Cardiac field artifacts were removed from the baseline EEG using independent component analysis (ICA). The HEP-peak was detected in a bandwidth of 20 ms around 8 ms and 270 ms (N8, N270) after the R-peak of the electrocardiogram signal. Differences between remitters and non-remitters were statistically assessed by repeated-measures ANOVAs for electrodes Fp1, Cz, and Oz. Results: In the venlafaxine subgroup, remitters showed a lower HEP around the N8 peak than non-remitters on electrode site Cz (p = 0.004; d = 0.497). The rTMS group showed a non-significant difference in the opposite direction (d = −0.051). Retrospective stratification to one of the treatments based on the HEP resulted in enhanced treatment outcome prediction for venlafaxine (+22.98%) and rTMS (+10.66%). Conclusion: These data suggest that the HEP could be used as a stratification biomarker between venlafaxine and rTMS; however, future out-of-sample replication is warranted.