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Supplementary Material for: High-Throughput Next-Generation Sequencing of the Kidd Blood Group: Unexpected Antigen Expression Properties of Four Alleles and Detection of Novel Variants

posted on 26.07.2022, 10:41 authored by Vorholt S.M., Lenz V., Just B., Enczmann J., Fischer J.C., Horn P.A., Zeiler T.A., Balz V.
Background: The blood supply for patients with foreign ethnic backgrounds can be challenging, as they often have blood group and HPA patterns that differ from the variants prevalent in the German population. In addition, hemoglobinopathies requiring regular blood transfusion may be more common in such populations. High-throughput genotyping tests can facilitate the identification of the most compatible blood products, thereby reducing the risk of transfusion reactions. The present study reports the results of a molecular study for the Kidd (JK) blood group. Allele frequencies and antigen prevalence data are presented for >8,000 individuals of various origins. Material and Methods: More than 8,000 blood donors were genotyped for 22 blood group systems and 5 HPA genes using an amplicon-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach. As part of the test system, we focused on the JK system in more detail. Double-ARMS PCR analysis was performed for the haplotype phasing of the JK1/JK2 and two more common synonymous polymorphisms. We performed transcript analysis to detect potential alternative splice products. For a subset of samples, a comparison between serotype and red cell genotype was conducted. Allele frequencies were determined for geographically different panels of individuals. Results: We successfully genotyped the JK blood group for 99.6% of the samples. Haplotype phasing revealed 96 different alleles. For several alleles that carry one of the synonymous SNVs c.588A>G and c.810G>A, we could not confirm the reported JK phenotypes. We found a higher frequency of JK:1 alleles for all populations except Iraqis. JK*01W.01 alleles were more common in the Asian groups and sub-Saharan Africans. A variant of the allele JK*02N.01 was present exclusively in Southeast Asians. Conclusion: Genotyping for JK antigens with a targeted NGS assay can easily be performed in routine. The interpretation that c.588A>G leads to a weak phenotype and c.810G>A to a null phenotype is questionable. IDs as well as the descriptions of alleles carrying these SNVs should be revised in the ISBT JK table.