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Supplementary Material for: How Are Self-Efficacy and Motivation Related to Drinking Five Years after Residential Treatment? A Longitudinal Multicenter Study

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posted on 21.05.2019, 11:39 by Müller A., Znoj H., Moggi F.
Background: Abstinence-related self-efficacy and action-oriented motivation to change addictive behaviours have been demonstrated to be important predictors of post-treatment drinking. However, there are only a few studies that assess drinking outcomes through a long-term follow-up interval. Objectives: The purpose of this longitudinal observational study is to evaluate whether self-efficacy and motivation at a 1-year follow-up mediate the relationship of self-efficacy at discharge from residential treatment with drinking outcomes at 5-year follow-up. Method: Simple and serial multiple mediation analyses were conducted on data collected from 263 patients (174 men, 89 women) with severe alcohol use disorder (AUD). Self-efficacy was measured at discharge and 1-year follow-up, and motivation was also measured at 1-year follow-up. Abstinence, percent days of abstinence (PDA), and drinks per drinking day (DDD) were used as drinking outcomes at 5-year follow-up. Exploring the indirect paths provided details about the interrelationship between self-efficacy and motivation. Results: Self-efficacy at discharge predicted abstinence and PDA. The mediation models suggest that self-efficacy at discharge was associated with self-efficacy and motivation at 1-year follow-up, which in turn was related to better long-term drinking outcomes, in particular for abstinence and PDA at 5-year follow-up. No such effects were found for DDD. Conclusions: The results indicate that self-efficacy and motivation are interrelated in improving long-term abstinence and PDA following residential treatments and may play a substantial role in recovery from AUD.