Supplementary Material for: Hybrid Percutaneous-Endoscopic Removal (HPER) of Cholelithiasis
datasetposted on 30.07.2020, 05:20 by Simons-Linares C.R., Gurajala R., Morris-Stiff G., Chahal P.
Acute cholecystitis (AC) affects over 20 million Americans annually, leading to annual costs exceeding USD 6 billion. Optimal treatment is early cholecystectomy. However, patients deemed high surgical risk undergo percutaneous cholecystostomy tube (PCT) placement as a bridge to surgery or more commonly as a definitive therapy. We hereby describe our experience with a new procedure named “Hybrid Percutaneous Endoscopic Removal (HPER) of cholelithiasis” that is meant for patients with chronic indwelling PCT. This procedure is an effective alternative to EUS-guided gallbladder drainage in high-risk patients. It does not require special expertise or technology and is simply performed by placing a fully covered metal stent conduit through the existing mature percutaneous tract allowing the endoscopic removal of gallstones through this conduit. This procedure can prevent the recurrence of gallstone-related complications as well as chronic PCT-related costs and adverse events. In our video, we present a case series and long-term follow-up of patients who underwent HPER as an alternative definitive therapy for calculous AC.