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Supplementary Material for: Hyperandrogenism, Insulin Resistance, and Acanthosis Nigricans (HAIR-AN) Syndrome Reflects Adipose Tissue Dysfunction (“Adiposopathy” or “Sick Fat”) in Asian Indian Girls

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posted on 14.01.2021, 09:02 by Agrawal K., Mathur R., Purwar N., Mathur S.K., Mathur D.K.
Background: Whether HAIR-AN syndrome and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) are distinct entities or represent a phenotypic spectrum of the same syndrome is still unclear. HAIR-AN syndrome is characterized by high insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperinsulinemia as compared to PCOS and could represent adipose tissue dysfunction as the primary pathophysiologic trigger. This study was undertaken to study the role of adipose tissue dysfunction in HAIR-AN syndrome and PCOS using adipocytokines as surrogate markers of “adiposopathy.” Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital over a period of 1 year. Serum adiponectin, leptin, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were measured in 30 women with HAIR-AN syndrome and in 30 women with PCOS. Correlations between adipocytokines, inflammatory markers, serum testosterone, and serum insulin were determined. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS version 23.0 (IBM SPSS Statistics Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) software program. Results: Women with HAIR-AN syndrome had significantly higher hyperandrogenemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance as compared to PCOS women. They also had high leptin levels and lower adiponectin levels (p < 0.001). However, the levels of inflammatory markers (TNF-α and IL-6) were similar in both the groups (p > 0.05). Serum adiponectin showed a negative correlation with HOMA-IR and testosterone levels, while leptin showed a positive correlation with both in HAIR-AN patients while no such correlation was found in the PCOS group. Conclusion: The significantly raised adipocytokines in HAIR-AN syndrome patients as compared to PCOS patients indicates the primary role of adipose tissue dysfunction (“adiposopathy”) in the pathogenesis of HAIR-AN syndrome while only a minor role, if any, in PCOS. Both these syndromes stand as distinct entities pathogenically with an overlapping phenotype.