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Supplementary Material for: IL-1 Mediates Tissue-Specific Inflammation and Severe Respiratory Failure in COVID-19

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posted on 11.05.2022, 07:19 by Renieris G., Karakike E., Gkavogianni T., Droggiti D.-E., Stylianakis E., Andriopoulou T., Spanou V.-M., Kafousopoulos D., Netea M.G., Eugen-Olsen J., Simard J., Giamarellos-Bourboulis E.J.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 has been associated with catastrophic inflammation. We present measurements in humans and a new animal model implicating a role in danger-associated molecular patterns. Calprotectin (S100A8/A9) and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) were measured in patients without/with ARDS, and admission calprotectin was associated with soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR). An animal model was developed by intravenous injection of plasma from healthy or patients with COVID-19 ARDS into C57/BL6 mice once daily for 3 consecutive days. Mice were treated with one anti-S100A8/A9 antibody, the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra or vehicle, and Flo1-2a anti-murine anti-IL-1α monoclonal antibody or the specific antihuman IL-1α antibody XB2001 or isotype controls. Cytokines and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in tissues. Calprotectin, but not HMGB1, was elevated in ARDS. Higher suPAR indicated higher calprotectin. Animal challenge with COVID-19 plasma led to inflammatory reactions in murine lung and intestines as evidenced by increased levels of TNFα, IL-6, IFNγ, and MPO. Lung inflammation was attenuated with anti-S100A8/A9 pre-treatment. Anakinra treatment restored these levels. Similar decrease was found in mice treated with Flo1-2a but not with XB2001. Circulating alarmins, specifically calprotectin, of critically ill COVID-19 patients induces tissue-specific inflammatory responses through an IL-1-mediated mechanism. This could be attenuated through inhibition of IL-1 receptor or of IL-1α.