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Supplementary Material for: Identification of Novel Transmembrane Proteins in Scirrhous-Type Gastric Cancer by the Escherichia coli Ampicillin Secretion Trap (CAST) Method: TM9SF3 Participates in Tumor Invasion and Serves as a Prognostic Factor

posted on 08.03.2014, 00:00 by Oo H.Z., Sentani K., Sakamoto N., Anami K., Naito Y., Oshima T., Yanagihara K., Oue N., Yasui W.
Objective: Scirrhous-type gastric cancer (GC) is highly aggressive and has a poor prognosis due to rapid cancer cell infiltration accompanied by extensive stromal fibrosis. The aim of this study is to identify genes that encode transmembrane proteins frequently expressed in scirrhous-type GC. Methods: We compared Escherichia coli ampicillin secretion trap (CAST) libraries from 2 human scirrhous-type GC tissues with a normal stomach CAST library. By sequencing 2,880 colonies from scirrhous CAST libraries, we identified a list of candidate genes. Results: We focused on the TM9SF3 gene because it has the highest clone count, and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that 46 (50%) of 91 GC cases were positive for TM9SF3, which was observed frequently in scirrhous-type GC. TM9SF3 expression showed a significant correlation with the depth of invasion, tumor stage and undifferentiated GC. There was a strong correlation between TM9SF3 expression and poor patient outcome, which was validated in two separate cohorts by immunostaining and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Transient knockdown of the TM9SF3 gene by siRNA showed decreased tumor cell-invasive capacity. Conclusion: Our results indicate that TM9SF3 might be a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for scirrhous-type GC.