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Supplementary Material for: Importance of Early Genetic Sequencing in Neonates Admitted to NICU with Recurrent Hypernatremia: Results of a Prospective Cohort Study

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posted on 19.11.2021, 11:35 by Hu L., Yang L., Yan K., Wu B., Wang H., Zhang R., Wang J., Cao Y., Cheng G., Zhou W.
Objectives: The genetic characteristics in neonates admitted to the NICU with recurrent hypernatremia remained unknown. We aimed to implement early genetic sequencing to identify possible genetic etiologies, optimize the treatment, and improve the outcome. Methods: We prospectively performed exome sequencing or targeted panel sequencing on neonates diagnosed with recurrent hypernatremia (plasma sodium ≥150 mEq/L, ≥2 episodes) from January 1, 2016, to June 30, 2020. Results: Among 22,375 neonates admitted to the NICU, approximately 0.33% (73/22,375) developed hypernatremia. The incidence of hypernatremia >14 days and ≤14 days was 0.03% and 0.3%, respectively. Among 38 neonates who had ≥2 hypernatremia episodes, parents of 28 patients consented for sequencing. Genetic diagnosis was achieved in 25% neonates (7/28). Precision medicine treatment was performed in 85.7% (6/7) of the patients, including hydrochlorothiazide and indomethacin for 57.1% (4/7) with arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2) deficiency-associated congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; a special diet of fructose formula for 1 patient with solute carrier family 5 member 1 deficiency-associated congenital glucose-galactose malabsorption (1/7, 14.3%); and kallikrein-inhibiting ointment for 1 patient with serine protease inhibitor of Kazal-type 5 deficiency-associated Netherton syndrome (1/7, 14.3%). Only hypernatremia onset age (adjusted odds ratio 1.32 [1.01–1.72], p = 0.040) independently predicted the underlying genetic etiology. The risk of a genetic etiology of hypernatremia was 9.0 times higher for neonates with a hypernatremia onset age ≥17.5 days (95% confidence interval, 1.1–73.2; p = 0.038). Conclusions: Single-gene disorders are common in neonates with recurrent hypernatremia, and >50% of cases are caused by AVPR2 deficiency-associated congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Early genetic testing can aid the diagnosis of unexplained recurrent neonatal hypernatremia and improve therapy and outcome.

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