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Supplementary Material for: Incorporation of Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin and Computed Tomography Quantification to Predict Acute Kidney Injury and In-Hospital Death in COVID-19 Patients

posted on 15.09.2020, 13:26 by He L., Zhang Q., Li Z., Shen L., Zhang J., Wang P., Wu S., Zhou T., Xu Q., Chen X., Fan X., Fan Y., Wang N.
Background: The prevalence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in COVID-19 patients is high, with poor prognosis. Early identification of COVID-19 patients who are at risk for AKI and may develop critical illness and death is of great importance. Objective: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a prognostic model of AKI and in-hospital death in patients with COVID-19, incorporating the new tubular injury biomarker urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (u-NGAL) and artificial intelligence (AI)-based chest computed tomography (CT) analysis. Methods: A single-center cohort of patients with COVID-19from Wuhan Leishenshan Hospital were included in this study. Demographic characteristics, laboratory findings, and AI-assisted chest CT imaging variables identified on hospital admission were screened using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) and logistic regression to develop a model for predicting the AKI risk. The accuracy of the AKI prediction model was measured using the concordance index (C-index), and the internal validity of the model was assessed by bootstrap resampling. A multivariate Cox regression model and Kaplan-Meier curves were analyzed for survival analysis in COVID-19 patients. Results: One hundred seventy-four patients were included. The median (±SD) age of the patients was 63.59 ± 13.79 years, and 83 (47.7%) were men.u-NGAL, serum creatinine, serum uric acid, and CT ground-glass opacity (GGO) volume were independent predictors of AKI, and all were selected in the nomogram. The prediction model was validated by internal bootstrapping resampling, showing results similar to those obtained from the original samples (i.e., 0.958; 95% CI 0.9097–0.9864). The C-index for predicting AKI was 0.955 (95% CI 0.916–0.995). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression confirmed that a high u-NGAL level, an increased GGO volume, and lymphopenia are strong predictors of a poor prognosis and a high risk of in-hospital death. Conclusions: This model provides a useful individualized risk estimate of AKI in patients with COVID-19. Measurement of u-NGAL and AI-based chest CT quantification are worthy of application and may help clinicians to identify patients with a poor prognosis in COVID-19 at an early stage.