Supplementary Material for: Increased Quinolone-Resistant Mutations of gyrA and parC Genes after Pouchitis Treatment with Ciprofloxacin

Background: Oral antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin (CFX), are widely used for the treatment of acute and chronic pouchitis. Most bacterial mutations that confer quinolone resistance are at Ser-83 and Asp-87 in the gyrA gene and Ser-80 and Glu-84 in the parC gene. Methods: We obtained 51 stool samples from 43 patients who were diagnosed with ulcerative colitis and underwent ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Patients were divided into 2 groups: 13 patients with CFX treatment of pouchitis and 30 patients without pouchitis. After extraction of fecal DNA, the amount of Escherichia coli 16S rRNA, gyrA, and parC gene DNA were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Possible mutations at gyrA 83 and 87 and at parC 80 and 84 were investigated by PCR cloning and sequencing, and mutation rates were quantified by rapid PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: Samples from both CFX-treated and -untreated patients had comparable levels of gyrA and parC gene DNA. Nucleic acid and amino acid mutations were identified at gyrA 83 and 87, and at parC 80 and 84. We successfully quantified mutation rates at gyrA 83 and 87, and at parC 84, all of which were significantly higher in samples from CFX-treated patients (70, 84, and 38%) than from CFX-untreated patients (13, 11, and 5%). Conclusion: E. coli in patient pouches may have mutations in their gyrA and parC genes that produce CFX resistance. Mutation rates of these genes were significantly higher in samples from CFX-treated patients. This study contributes to understanding the decrease and loss of CFX effectiveness against pouchitis.