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Supplementary Material for: Indicators of Drug-Related Community Impacts of Open Drug Scenes: A Scoping Review

posted on 18.11.2021, 10:44 by SaberiZafarghandi M.B., Eshrati S., Rashedi V., Vameghi M., Arezoomandan R., Clausen T., Waal H.
Introduction: Places where people deal and/or use drugs publicly are known as open drug scenes (ODSs). Drug-related community impacts (DRCIs) refer to drug-related issues that negatively influence public and individual health, communities, businesses, and recreational and public space enjoyment. There are no well-established criteria for identification of DRCIs. We therefore performed a scoping review of literature to determine DRCIs indicators associated with ODSs. Methods: The review was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScP). We searched English articles in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases from 1990 to 2021. The keywords were drug-related crime, drug-related offense, misconduct, social marginalization, homeless drug users, open drug scene, drug-related street disorder, public nuisance, and community impact. Results: Sixty-four studies were identified. Twenty-five studies were included. Two studies (8%) were about drug-related public nuisance, 1 (4%) considered drug-related social problems, 2 (8%) focused on drug-related social disorder, and 18 studies (72%) discussed indicators of community impacts such as crime, drug-related litter, safety, noise, and drug use in public. Two studies (8%) included the frequency of drug use in ODSs. Discussion: DRCI indicators are heterogenic, and various factors affect the indicators. The factors include social mores, political discourse, and historical approaches to dealing with and using drugs. Some societies do not tolerate the existence of ODSs. In contrast, many countries have adopted harm reduction programs to manage DRCIs. Identified DRCI indicators were drug using and dealing in public, drug-related litter, crime, drug-related loitering, street-based income generation activities, noise, and unsafety feelings in inhabitants. To solve the problems associated with DRCIs and to make a major change in ODSs, it is necessary to pay attention to the improvement of the economic conditions (e.g., employment opportunities), amendment (e.g., determine the limits of criminalization in drug use), and adoption of social policies (e.g., providing low-threshold and supportive services for homeless drug users).