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Supplementary Material for: Investigating the Association between Wake-Up Stroke and Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Meta-Analysis

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posted on 09.09.2021, 05:08 by Lu X., Liu W., Wang H.
Background: Management of wake-up stroke (WUS) is always a challenge as no clear time of onset could be ascertained, and how to choose an appropriate therapy remains unclear. Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has been regarded as a potential risk factor to WUS, yet no consensus was achieved. Motivated by the need for a deeper understanding of WUS and its association with sleep apnea, meta-analyses summarizing the available evidence of respiratory events and indices were conducted, and sensitivity analysis was also used for heterogeneity. Methods: Electronic databases were systematically searched, and cross-checking was done for relevant studies. Collected data included demographic characteristics, and sleep apnea parameters were extracted with stroke patients divided into WUS and NWUS groups. Clinical data of stroke patients accompanied with sleep apnea syndrome (OSA, SAS, and severe SAS) were also extracted for meta-analysis. Results: A total of 13 studies were included in the analysis. The meta-analysis results showed that OSA, SAS, and severe SAS were significantly higher in WUS patients. A significantly higher AHI (WMD 7.74, 95% CI: 1.38–14.11; p = 0.017) and ODI (WMD of 3.85, 95% CI: 0.261–7.438; p = 0.035) than NWUS patients was also observed in the analysis of respiratory indices. Conclusion: WUS patients have severer SDB problems compared to NWUS patients suggesting that respiratory events during sleep might be underlying the induction of WUS. Besides, the induction of WUS was significantly associated with men rather than women. Therefore, early diagnosis and management of potential WUS patients should benefit from the detection of SDB status and respiratory effects.