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Supplementary Material for: Involvement of Pattern Recognition Receptors in the Direct Influence of Bacterial Components and Standard Antiacne Compounds on Human Sebaceous Gland Cells

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posted on 18.02.2021, 13:34 by Zouboulis C.C., Oeff M.K., Hiroi N., Makrantonaki E., Bornstein S.R.
Introduction: Pattern recognition receptors are involved in innate and adaptive immunity by detecting microbial components. Bacteria have been accused to play a role in inflammatory acne. We investigated the potential involvement of Toll-like receptor (TLR)2, TLR4, TLR6, and CD14 in the direct influence of bacterial components and standard antiacne compounds on human sebocytes. Methods: mRNA and protein expression of TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, and CD14 in SZ95 sebocytes was evaluated by real-time qRT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. The effects of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid on TLR2, TLR4, and CD14 expression and of cytokine/chemokine secretion by 13-cis-retinoic acid, all-trans-retinoic acid, retinol, and hydrocortisone at the mRNA and protein levels were assessed by real-time qRT-PCR and ELISA and verified by cocultivation with neutralizing antibodies. Results: The constitutive expression of TLR2, TLR4, and CD14 in SZ95 sebocytes was augmented by exposure to LPS. Hydrocortisone induced TLR2, but markedly reduced TLR4 expression. 13-cis-retinoic acid and all-trans-retinoic acid regulated IL-6 release. LPS enhanced and hydrocortisone reduced cytokine and chemokine release. Anti-TLR4 and anti-CD14 mAb blocked LPS-induced IL-8 and IL-6 release. Conclusions: Microbial components use pattern recognition receptors to directly activate sebocytes to express a wide range of proinflammatory molecules and especially IL-8 and IL-6 in a TLR4- and CD14-specific manner. Retinoids, but mostly corticosteroids, also use this pathway to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects.