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Supplementary Material for: Karyotype Evolution of Eulipotyphla (Insectivora): The Genome Homology of Seven Sorex Species Revealed by Comparative Chromosome Painting and Banding Data

posted on 12.09.2011, 00:00 by Biltueva L., Vorobieva N., Perelman P., Trifonov V., Volobouev V., Panov V., Ilyashenko V., Onischenko S., O’Brien P., Yang F.
The genus Sorex is one of the most successful genera of Eulipotyphla. Species of this genus are characterized by a striking chromosome variability including XY1Y2 sex chromosome systems and exceptional chromosomal polymorphisms within and between populations. To study chromosomal evolution of the genus in detail, we performed cross-species chromosome painting of 7 Sorex species with S. granarius and S. araneus whole-chromosome probes and found that the tundra shrew S. tundrensis has the most rearranged karyotype among these. We reconstructed robust phylogeny of the genus Sorex based on revealed conserved chromosomal segments and syntenic associations. About 16 rearrangements led to formation of 2 major Palearctic groups after their divergence from the common ancestor: the S. araneus group (10 fusions and 1 fission) and the S. minutus group (5 fusions). Further chromosomal evolution of the 12 species inside the groups, including 5 previously investigated species, was accompanied by multiple reshuffling events: 39 fusions, 20 centromere shifts and 10 fissions. The rate of chromosomal exchanges upon formation of the genus was close to the average rate for eutherians, but increased during recent (about 6–3 million years ago) speciation within Sorex. We propose that a plausible ancestral Sorex karyotype consists of 56 elements. It underwent 20 chromosome rearrangements from the boreoeutherian ancestor, with 14 chromosomes retaining the conserved state. The set of genus-specific chromosome signatures was drawn from the human (HSA)-shrew comparative map (HSA3/12/22, 8/19/3/21, 2/13, 3/18, 11/17, 12/15 and 1/12/22). The syntenic association HSA4/20, that was previously proposed as a common trait of all Eulipotyphla species, is shown here to be an apomorphic trait of S. araneus.