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Supplementary Material for: Kisspeptin Levels in Girls with Precocious Puberty: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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posted on 22.04.2021, 08:30 by Cintra R.G., Wajnsztejn R., Trevisan C.M., Zaia V., Laganà A.S., Bianco B., Montagna E.
Background/Aims: Kisspeptin (KP) is a key player in the regulation of the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which increases the secretion of gonadotropin during puberty to establish reproductive function and regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Premature activation of GnRH secretion leads to idiopathic/central gonadotropin-dependent precocious puberty (CPP). We aimed to compare the blood KP concentrations in girls with CPP and healthy controls. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and SciELO. Random-effects model and standardized mean difference (SMD) were used. Heterogeneity was assessed through I2. Meta-regression considered patient age, KP fraction, and analytical method for KP measurement. Results: The 11 studies included comprised 316 CPP patients and 251 controls. Higher KP levels in the CPP group were found (SMD 1.53; CI 95% = 0.56–2.51). Subgroup analysis revealed association with patient age (p = 0.048), indicating a positive correlation between elevation in KP concentration and age in CPP group. A group of patients with precocious thelarche (PT) from 5 of the included studies comprising 121 patients showed higher levels of KP (1.10; −0.25–2.45: CI 95%) and high heterogeneity (I2 = 91%). The CPP/PT ratio for KP level indicates KP 36% higher on CPP than PT patients. Conclusions: A consistent difference in KP levels between girls with CPP and controls was identified. While there are important limitations in KP assays which argue against its use as a diagnostic tool, the KP levels in CPP versus control and PT children are consistent with the predicted mechanisms and pathophysiology of CPP.