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Supplementary Material for: Long-Term Opioid Agonist Treatment Participation after First Treatment Entry is Similar across 4 European Regions but Lower in Non-Nationals

posted on 17.07.2018, 07:38 by Nordt C., Wiessing L., Kuijpers W., Wisselink J., Espelt A., Brugal M.T., Mravčik V., Nechanská B., Seifritz E., Herdener M.
Heroin users in opioid agonist treatment (OAT) show markedly reduced heroin consumption, less crime and a lower mortality rate. However, the extent of long-term OAT participation over subsequent treatment episodes remains unclear. We analysed the annual proportion of patients in treatment (at least 1 day) since the start of first OAT in 4 European regions: Barcelona (BA) 1996–2012: 8,602 patients; Czech ­Republic (CZ) 2000–2014: 4,377 patients; Netherlands (NL) 1994–2014: 33,235 patients, Zurich (ZU) 1992–2015: 11,795. We estimated the long-term decline of treatment need due to mortality or abstinence and also a “nuisance” short-term decline until the equilibrium level of cycling in and out of OAT is reached to obtain the adjusted treatment participation value. The adjusted treatment participation was around 50% (BA: 47.4–51.4%; CZ: 49.8–53.9%; NL: 52.3–54.0%; ZU: 46.4–49.3%), and the annual decline of treatment need was close to 4%. Non-nationals (NL patients with a migrant background) showed substantial lower adjusted treatment participation (rate ratio BA: 0.059–0.343; NL: 0.710–0.751; ZU: 0.681–0.797; CZ: n.a.). Our method may provide a policy-relevant indicator of long-term provision, quality and access to OAT following first treatment.