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Supplementary Material for: Long-Term Risk of Ischemic Stroke among Elderly Survivors of Non-Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

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posted on 15.07.2021, 06:33 by Parasram M., Parikh N.S., Merkler A.E., Ch’ang J.H., .Navi B.B., Kamel H., Zhang C., Murthy S.B.
Introduction: Non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with poor long-term functional outcomes, but the risk of ischemic stroke among SAH survivors is poorly understood. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of ischemic stroke among survivors of SAH. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study using claims data from Medicare beneficiaries from 2008 to 2015. The exposure was a diagnosis of SAH, while the outcome was an acute ischemic stroke, both identified using previously validated ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. We used Cox regression analysis adjusting for demographics and stroke risk factors to evaluate the association between SAH and long-term risk of ischemic stroke. Results: Among 1.7 million Medicare beneficiaries, 912 were hospitalized with non-traumatic SAH. During a median follow-up of 5.2 years (IQR, 2.7–6.7), the cumulative incidence of ischemic stroke was 22 per 1,000 patients per year among patients with SAH, and 7 per 1,000 patients per year in those without SAH. In adjusted Cox models, SAH was associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke (HR, 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.4–2.8) as compared to beneficiaries without SAH. Similar results were obtained in sensitivity analyses, when treating death as a competing risk (sub HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 2.8–3.3) and after excluding ischemic stroke within 30 days of SAH discharge (HR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1–2.3). Conclusions: In a large, heterogeneous national cohort of elderly patients, survivors of SAH had double the long-term risk of ischemic stroke. SAH survivors should be closely monitored and risk stratified for ischemic stroke.