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Supplementary Material for: Long-Term Trends in Risk Factor Management in Respondents with Chronic Kidney Disease in the USA

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posted on 20.09.2022, 05:41 authored by Liu Q., Bai B., Liu F., Chen Y., Wang Y., Wang H., Ma H., Geng Q.
Introduction: Unhealthy lifestyle factors are known to increase the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its complications. The long-term trends in these factors are unclear. Methods: The aim of the study was to assess temporal trends in the prevalence of risk factors in adults with CKD in the USA and identify sociodemographic subgroups at most risk. Subanalysis of data was carried out from a stratified, complex, multistage probability-based cross-sectional and nationally representative survey. We examined participants from National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) respondents aged ≥20 years with CKD from 1999 to 2018. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15–59 mL/min/1.73 m2. Evaluated risk factors included uncontrolled blood pressure, blood glucose, blood lipids, excessive sodium intake, excessive protein intake, poor diet, obesity, smoking, depression, physical inactivity, and sedentary behavior. Sociodemographic variables included age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, education level, family income, and employment status. Results: Blood pressure control among respondents with CKD (n = 4,342) was poor but significantly improved from the 1999–2000 (82% uncontrolled) to 2017–2018 surveys (66%; p for linear trend = 0.02). Prevalence of uncontrolled blood glucose (15–22%; p < 0.01), excessive sodium intake (72–78%; p = 0.04), and obesity (32–51%; p < 0.01) significantly increased over this time. The proportion of respondents with uncontrolled blood lipids, depression, smoking, excessive protein intake, poor diet, physical inactivity, or sedentary behavior showed no significant change over the 10-year period. Older people were more likely to have high blood pressure, high blood glucose, and high blood lipids but healthier lifestyle habits than younger people. And respondents of males, non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, low income, low education, widowed/divorced/separated, and employed had worse risk factor control compared to reference groups. Discussion/Conclusion: Although the control of several risk factors in US NHANES respondents with CKD improved from 1999 to 2018, further reductions remain of value.


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