Supplementary Material for: Machine Learning for Prediction and Risk Stratification of Lupus Nephritis Renal Flare
datasetposted on 19.03.2021, 08:23 by Chen Y., Huang S., Chen T., Liang D., Yang J., Zeng C., Li X., Xie G., Liu Z.
Background: Renal flare of lupus nephritis (LN) is strongly associated with poor kidney outcomes, and predicting renal flare and stratifying its risk are important for clinical decision-making and individualized management to reduce LN flare. Methods: We randomly divided 1,694 patients with biopsy-proven LN, who had achieved remission after treatment, into a derivation cohort (n = 1,186) and an internal validation cohort (n = 508), at a ratio of 7:3. The risk of renal flare 5 years after remission was predicted using an eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) method model, developed from 59 variables, including demographic, clinical, immunological, pathological, and therapeutic characteristics. A simplified risk score prediction model (SRSPM) was developed from important variables selected by XGBoost model using stepwise Cox regression for practical convenience. Results: The 5-year relapse rates were 39.5% and 38.2% in the derivation and internal validation cohorts, respectively. Both the XGBoost model and the SRSPM had good predictive performance, with a C-index of 0.819 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.774–0.857) and 0.746 (95% CI: 0.697–0.795), respectively, in the validation cohort. The SRSPM comprised 6 variables, including partial remission and endocapillary hypercellularity at baseline, age, serum Alb, anti-dsDNA, and serum complement C3 at the point of remission. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, the SRSPM identified significant risk stratification for renal flares (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Renal flare of LN can be readily predicted using the XGBoost model and the SRSPM, and the SRSPM can also stratify flare risk. Both models are useful for clinical decision-making and individualized management in LN.